274 user 241 critic

First Reformed (2017)

2:15 | Trailer

Watch Now

With Prime Video

A minister of a small congregation in upstate New York grapples with mounting despair brought on by tragedy, worldly concerns and a tormented past.


Paul Schrader


Paul Schrader
782 ( 25)
Nominated for 1 Oscar. Another 55 wins & 94 nominations. See more awards »



Learn more

More Like This 

Eighth Grade (2018)
Comedy | Drama
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.5/10 X  

An introverted teenage girl tries to survive the last week of her disastrous eighth grade year before leaving to start high school.

Director: Bo Burnham
Stars: Elsie Fisher, Josh Hamilton, Emily Robinson
Crime | Drama | Mystery
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6.8/10 X  

A traumatized veteran, unafraid of violence, tracks down missing girls for a living. When a job spins out of control, Joe's nightmares overtake him as a conspiracy is uncovered leading to what may be his death trip or his awakening.

Director: Lynne Ramsay
Stars: Joaquin Phoenix, Judith Roberts, Ekaterina Samsonov
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.2/10 X  

A father and his thirteen year-old daughter are living an ideal existence in a vast urban park in Portland, Oregon, when a small mistake derails their lives forever.

Director: Debra Granik
Stars: Thomasin McKenzie, Ben Foster, Jeffery Rifflard
Good Time (2017)
Crime | Drama | Thriller
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.3/10 X  

After a botched bank robbery lands his younger brother in prison, Connie Nikas embarks on a twisted odyssey through New York City's underworld to get his brother Nick out of jail.

Directors: Benny Safdie, Josh Safdie
Stars: Robert Pattinson, Benny Safdie, Jennifer Jason Leigh
Cold War (2018)
Drama | Music | Romance
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.7/10 X  

In the 1950s, a music director falls in love with a singer and tries to persuade her to flee communist Poland for France.

Director: Pawel Pawlikowski
Stars: Joanna Kulig, Tomasz Kot, Borys Szyc
Drama | Mystery | Thriller
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7/10 X  

Steven, a charismatic surgeon, is forced to make an unthinkable sacrifice after his life starts to fall apart, when the behavior of a teenage boy he has taken under his wing turns sinister.

Director: Yorgos Lanthimos
Stars: Barry G. Bernson, Herb Caillouet, Bill Camp
Roma (2018)
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.8/10 X  

A year in the life of a middle-class family's maid in Mexico City in the early 1970s.

Director: Alfonso Cuarón
Stars: Yalitza Aparicio, Marina de Tavira, Diego Cortina Autrey
Comedy | Fantasy | Sci-Fi
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7/10 X  

In an alternate present-day version of Oakland, telemarketer Cassius Green discovers a magical key to professional success, propelling him into a universe of greed.

Director: Boots Riley
Stars: LaKeith Stanfield, Tessa Thompson, Jermaine Fowler
Mandy (2018)
Action | Fantasy | Horror
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6.6/10 X  

The enchanted lives of a couple in a secluded forest are brutally shattered by a nightmarish hippie cult and their demon-biker henchmen, propelling a man into a spiraling, surreal rampage of vengeance.

Director: Panos Cosmatos
Stars: Nicolas Cage, Andrea Riseborough, Linus Roache
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.6/10 X  

Set over one summer, the film follows precocious six-year-old Moonee as she courts mischief and adventure with her ragtag playmates and bonds with her rebellious but caring mother, all while living in the shadows of Walt Disney World.

Director: Sean Baker
Stars: Brooklynn Prince, Bria Vinaite, Willem Dafoe
Drama | Romance
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.3/10 X  

A woman in Harlem embraces her pregnancy while she and her family struggle to prove her fiancé innocent of a crime.

Director: Barry Jenkins
Stars: KiKi Layne, Stephan James, Regina King
Comedy | Drama | Musical
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 7.3/10 X  

Six tales of life and violence in the Old West, following a singing gunslinger, a bank robber, a traveling impresario, an elderly prospector, a wagon train, and a perverse pair of bounty hunters.

Directors: Ethan Coen, Joel Coen
Stars: Tim Blake Nelson, Willie Watson, Clancy Brown


Cast overview, first billed only:
Ethan Hawke ... Toller
Amanda Seyfried ... Mary
Cedric the Entertainer ... Jeffers (as Cedric Antonio Kyles)
Victoria Hill ... Esther
Philip Ettinger ... Michael
Michael Gaston ... Balq
Bill Hoag ... Elder
Kristin Villanueva ... Nurse
Ingrid Kullberg-Bendz ... Middle-Aged Tourist
Ken Forman ... Middle-Aged Man (as Ken Foreman)
Christopher Dylan White ... College Student
Frank Rodriguez ... Sheriff
Gary Lee Mahmoud ... Doctor
Joseph Anthony Jerez ... War Vet in Wheelchair (as Joseph Jerez)
Sue Jean Kim ... Suriya


Forty-six year old Reverend Ernst Toller is the pastor at the historic First Reformed Church in upstate New York. It is seen as the "tourist" church or the "souvenir shop" (its historical significance partly it being a stop on the underground railroad before the slaves crossed into Canada) by Abundant Life, which owns the church and which operates a modern self-named five thousand seat church overseen by Reverend Joel Jeffers. First Reformed is celebrating its two hundred fiftieth anniversary this year, for which a major event is planned, modest in size only at First Reformed itself although the dignitaries like the governor and mayor will be at attendance there, while the event will be simulcast at Abundant Life. Most of the speech-making will be done by local industrialist Ed Balq, a major benefactor of Abundant Life and who is the major donor for the necessary upgrades at First Reformed to be able to hold the event there, and for the event itself, while Toller's participation will ... Written by Huggo

Plot Summary | Add Synopsis


Forgive us, for we have sinned. See more »

Motion Picture Rating (MPAA)

Rated R for some disturbing violent images | See all certifications »

Parents Guide:

View content advisory »


Official Sites:

Official Facebook | Official site | See more »


USA | UK | Australia



Release Date:

18 May 2018 (USA) See more »

Also Known As:

First Reformed See more »

Filming Locations:

Hicksville, New York, USA See more »


Box Office

Opening Weekend USA:

$97,562, 20 May 2018, Limited Release

Gross USA:

$3,448,256, 2 August 2018
See more on IMDbPro »

Company Credits

Show more on IMDbPro »

Technical Specs




Aspect Ratio:

1.37 : 1
See full technical specs »

Did You Know?


This is the first movie in which Cedric the Entertainer is credited under his real name, Cedric Kyles. See more »


When Toller is writing in his journal we can see the previous pages, the ones he has presumably already filled with entries, are perfectly flat as in a brand new journal, not puffed up, as pages which have been filled would be. Also the thickness of the "filled" pages varies, getting thinner at times as the movie progresses. See more »


[first lines]
Reverend Ernst Toller: I have decided to keep a journal. Not in a word program or digital file, but in longhand, writing every word out so that every inflection of penmanship, every word chosen, scratched out, revised, is recorded. To set down all my thoughts and the simple events of my day factually and without hiding anything. When writing about oneself, one should show no mercy. I will keep this diary for one year; 12 months. And at the end of that time, it will be destroyed. Shredded, then burnt. The...
See more »


References Taxi Driver (1976) See more »


Leaning on the Everlasting Arms
Written by Elisha A. Hoffman
Music by Anthony J. Showalter (as Anthony Johnson Showalter)
Performed by Julia Murney
Arrangement by "We Are Dark Angels"
Nicci Kasper - Nics and Dimes ASCAP
Deantoni Parks - Sexy South Music ASCAP
See more »

Frequently Asked Questions

This FAQ is empty. Add the first question.

User Reviews

Brilliantly shot, excellently written
24 July 2018 | by BertautSee all my reviews

Most reviews I've seen of First Reformed have praised it as Paul Schrader's best work since either Taxi Driver (1976) or Raging Bull (1980). And whilst I think that's an oversimplification, unjustly ignoring such strong screenplays as The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) and Bringing Out the Dead (1999), and very unjustly ignoring such superb directorial work as Affliction (1997) and Auto Focus (2002), there can be little doubt that First Reformed is easily his best film of the last fifteen years or so (which wouldn't be hard when you consider films like The Canyons (2013), Dying of the Light (2014), and Dog Eat Dog (2016)).

The film tells a deceptively simple story - Reverend Ernst Toller (Ethan Hawke) is the parish priest of a small congregation in the Snowbridge suburb of New York. A former military chaplain, Toller is struggling with the death of his son, Joseph, who he encouraged to enlist, and who was killed several months into his first tour in Iraq. As a result, Toller's marriage fell apart, which his wife blaming him for Joseph's death. As the film begins, Toller's spiritual crisis is already well under way. He's drinking too much, doesn't show much interest in his official duties, doesn't seem bothered that his congregation has dwindled to about ten people, and has taken to recording his thoughts in a journal which he plans to keep for one year, and then destroy. After Sunday mass, Toller is approached by Mary (Amanda Seyfried), one of his parishioners, who is worried about her husband, Michael (Philip Ettinger). A radical environmentalist who has just been released from prison in Canada, Michael has developed extreme nihilistic views, and wants Mary to abort their unborn child because he doesn't think anyone has the right to bring a child into a dying world. Although initially reluctant to get involved, Mary persuades Toller to counsel Michael. Meanwhile, the 250th anniversary of the First Reformed church from which Toller works is fast approaching, with a huge service to be attended by both the governor and mayor.

The above plot summary takes up roughly the first twenty minutes or so of the film, almost up to the end of the first act. At that point, it looks as if the narrative is heading in the direction of following Toller as he sets about changing Michael's extreme worldview. But that's not where it goes at all, instead focusing almost exclusively on the disintegration of Toller's faith, and the development of his own nihilistic outlook. Along the way, it introduces us to three main supporting characters - Reverend Joel Jeffers (Cedric the Entertainer) of Abundant Life, the megachurch that owns First Reformed, and who gave Toller his job; Esther (Victoria Hill), choirmaster at First Reformed, who had a brief sexual relationship with Toller after his marriage ended; and Edward Balq (Michael Gaston), an industrialist whose company is regarded as one of the worst polluters on the planet. As Toller wrestles with his conscience, he comes into conflict with all three in various ways. At the same time, Mary remains virtually the only remnant of hope in his life, as they continue to grow close.

The most striking thing to me about First Reformed is that it is brilliantly shot in Academy ratio (1.37:1), and as a result, everything is boxed in, suggesting little room for movement, with very little empty space in the frame. Coupled with this, Schrader is remarkably consistent in composing perfectly symmetrical shots (the opening scene is a good example). Together, the small frame and the symmetrical compositions give one the impression of looking at a confessional, with the priest on one side and the confessor on the other. As Toller's journal entries occur throughout the film in the form of voiceover, this aesthetic replication of a confessional is enhanced even further - although Toller is not the priest hearing the confession, he is the one confessing.

In line with this, First Reformed is not an easy film to watch. It's central themes are suffering, loss of faith, nihilism, and environmental catastrophe, and the way the film is shot, with the added intimacy of the journal, make it seems as if the audience is suffering right alongside Toller; we're drawn completely into his world, and even his mind, in a way very few films achieve. Schrader allows the content to brilliantly dictate the form, with the two becoming so intertwined as to be virtually indistinguishable from one another - a concept most filmmakers don't seem to even understand, let alone have the ability to accomplish. Interestingly this is the second film in the last twelve months to use Academy ratio for explicit narrative reasons, the other being David Lowery's superb A Ghost Story (2017).

Of course, Schrader is as cine-literate as they come, and doesn't make films in isolation (for example, there are at least three explicit visual references to Taxi Driver), and looking at First Reformed in relation to his career would require a full article-length study to itself. However, the film in his oeuvre of which I was most reminded was, strangely enough, Dominion: Prequel to the Exorcist (2005), which is not especially good, but which does share many of the same narrative beats and thematic concerns - a lost priest whose experiences of the darker side of humanity has led to him questioning his faith; a crisis of conscience; a righteous cause to which he totally gives himself over; an indifferent God watching everything unfold; an unimaginable sacrifice; hope offered in the form of an innocent. First Reformed is a lot better, and a lot more morally complex, but there's certainly a thematic consistency.

However, that is not to say First Reformed is perfect. There are parts where it is extraordinarily clunky. For example, there's the wake where a group of environmentalists start singing an awful cappella version of Neil Young's activist song, "Who's Gonna Stand up?", or the scene where Mary and Toller take (figurative) flight through the power of holding hands (in a scene that reminded me of The Big Lebowski (1998) far more than I would imagine was intended, and got quite a few laughs at the screening I attended).

Additionally, although I've seen many reviews talking about how thought-provoking the environmentalist side of the story is, for me it never really coalesced into anything inherently coherent. Obviously, Toller is a man ready to fall apart when the movie begins, and Michael's concerns about the future of the planet serve as the catalyst for that. However, rather than the film presenting this as nothing more than the backdrop against which Toller's crisis takes place, and thus purposely rendering it unimportant in and of itself, Schrader seems to be trying to genuinely shoehorn in a call-to-action. Which is fairly out of place. And, to be honest, the photograph of the emaciated polar bear is far more disturbing and resonant than any of the facts and figures the film occasionally tosses out.

I'm also not 100% convinced the black comedy worked. There aren't that many instances of it, but when they come, they are so black as to be easily missed. Probably the best example is when Toller is showing a group of children around First Reformed, and telling them how it was a stop on the Underground Railroad, showing them a secret basement in which the runaway slaves would hide. However, instead of simply giving them a quick history lesson, he ends up staring into the basement and giving a graphic description of what it must have been like hiding in the dark, scared and tired, with no room to move. There's a few moments like this, but I didn't think they really sat well with the ultra-realism on display elsewhere.

But they're minor faults, and all things considered, this is a high-quality film. Will it be in contention come awards season? Possibly. Schrader has always had a fraught relationship with the Academy (hard to believe he's never even been nominated for an Oscar), but this is the kind of serious subject matter that voters usually lap up. I certainly wouldn't be surprised to see Hawke get some acting nods, possibly Seyfried too. Irrespective of that (and we all know the amount of Oscar nominations a film gets has very little to do with its quality), this is a strong film made by a skilled artist about a subject matter for which he clearly feels deeply.

21 of 34 people found this review helpful.  Was this review helpful to you? | Report this
Review this title | See all 274 user reviews »

Contribute to This Page

Stream Trending Movies With Prime Video

Enjoy a night in with these popular movies available to stream now with Prime Video.

Start your free trial

Recently Viewed